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Massachusetts - The Cradle Of Liberty (From The United States Series)

Statehood:

Admitted to the Union February 6, 1788 as the Sixth State, and bordered by Connecticut, Rhode Island, Vermont, New York, New Hampshire, and the Atlantic Ocean, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts is the most heavily populated New England State.

"Cradle of Liberty":

Known as the "Cradle of Liberty, " and significant throughout the history of the United States, many Massachusetts towns founded in the 1620s and 1630s by Colonists from England, including Plymouth, the second permanent British settlement in North America, were extremely involved in events leading up to the Revolutionary War, many abolitionist activities before the Civil War, and temperance movements against alcoholic beverages.

Political Leaders:

Massachusetts has produced several National Leaders, including Presidents, from the Kennedy and Adams families.

Name:

Massachusetts has the Native American Indian names "massachusett, " "massachueseuck, " and Maswetset, " interpreted to mean "by the blue hills, " "near the great hill, " and "at the little big hill, " referring to Great Blue Hill, near Milton and Canton southwest of Boston, the highest point in Norfolk County, and to the hill shaped like an arrowhead in Quincy.

Native Americans:

Native American Indian tribes that resided in Massachusetts included the Mohegan, the Mohican, the Massachusett, the Narraganset, the Niantic, the Nauset, the Chickataubut, the Wampatuck, the Nanepaskemet, the Wonohaquaham, the Montowampute, the Cato, the Manatahqua, the Nahaton, the Cutshhamakin, the Iyanough, the Wiananno, the Hyannis, the Monomoy, the Nipmuc, the Acoomemeck, the Coweset, the Hassanamesco, the Magunkaquog, the Manchaug, the Menemesseg, the Metewemesick, the Missoghannog, the Nashobah, the Muskataquid, the Okamakammesset, the Pakachoog, the Quabaug, the Quadick, the Quantisset, the Segunesit, the Tatumasket, the Wacuntug, the Wenimesset, the Pennacook, the Agawam, the Mayawaug, the Nameroke, the Nonotuck, the Scitico, the Squawkeag, the Annawon, the Weetamoe, the Caunbatant, the Tyaska, the Nahtooksaet, the Assameekg, the Assawampset, the Coaxet, the Cohannett, the Cowsumpsit, the Mattakeset, the Munponset, the Namasket, the Nasnocomacack, the Nukkehkummeess, the Pachade, the Patuxet, the Pocasset, the Quittub, the Saltwate Pond, the Chaubaqueduck, the Gay Head, the Nashamoiess, the Nunnepoag, the Nashanekammuck, the Ohkankemme, the Sanchecantacket, the Seconchqut, the Miacomit, the Podpis, the Quays, the Tetaukimmo, the Toikiming, the Wabaquaset, the Wacuntug, the Washacum, the Pocumtook, the Segreganset, the Sokoki, the St, Francois, the Abenaki, the Moliseet, the Norwattuck, the Pachasock, the Woronoco, the Assonet, the Herring Pond, the Mishawum, the Nahapassumkeck, the Nonantum, the Sakonnet, the Pokanoket, the Shawomet, the Pakachoag, the Mohaw, the Tunxis, the Pocomtuc, and the Wampanoag,

Mayflower:

Various tribes of Native American Indians were the original occupants of the territory that became the Commonwealth of Massachusetts and were greeted on November 11, 1620 in the Cape Cod area by the surviving passengers on the Mayflower that brought the Pilgrims to the New World.

The Mayflower Compact, written after the Mayflower arrived, was the first document governing how the Plymouth Colony would be ruled.

The Pilgrims, a group of religious Separatists, first landed at Provincetown on Cape Cod on November 11, 1620, and later, along with assistance from the Patuxet Indian Squanto, signed a treaty with Chief Massasoit of the Wampanoag Confederacy that allowed successful settling of the area the Massachusetts Bay Colony would later annex in 1691, leaving behind the American tradition known as Thanksgiving.

Dropping anchor on December 17, 1620 at Plymouth Harbor, and after rejecting Clarke's Island, and the mouth of the Jones River as potential settlement sites, the Pilgrims chose the abandoned Patuxet because of its defensive position centered on Cole's Hill and Fort Hill, and the cleared land found there making agricultural farming easier.

It is generally accepted that Plymouth Rock was the original landing point of the Pilgrims in the New World, and that on March 16, 1621 the Pilgrims first formal contact with the Native American Indians occurred.

On April 5, 1621, after four months in Plymouth Harbor, the Mayflower returned to England leaving behind about half of the Pilgrims who made the journey to the New World, the rest had died, mostly from scurvy, lack of shelter, and onboard ship conditions, and according to William Bradford, the Plymouth Governor, within two or three months of arrival, however, only three men and a newborn baby died on the ship itself including Captain Christopher Jones.

It is speculated the Mayflower was dismantled for scrap lumber in Rotherhithe, London.

History:

Ratified in 1790 the Massachusetts Constitution declared universal rights and abolished slavery in the State.

Due to the Missouri Compromise Maine separated from Massachusetts and became a State on March 15, 1820, and New England became a National leader during the Industrial Revolution.

The Massachusetts system of public schools became the United States model under Horace Mann, and Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone in Boston in 1876.

Major industries that have been found in Massachusetts include agriculture, fishing, Trades, manufacturing, textiles, education, high technology, financial services, insurance, health care, steam engines, shoes, furniture, and more.

Adams National Historic Park:

Found in Quincy with eleven historic buildings detailing five generations of the Adams Family, including two United States Presidents and three United States Ministers that have come from it, the John Adams Birthplace, the John Quincy Adams Birthplace, the Stone Library, the United First Parish Church, the Adams Family Crypt, and the house the clan resided in.

Boston National Historic Park:

The Boston National Historic Park contains eight historic sites including the Freedom Trail, Bunker Hill, the Old North Church, Dorchester Heights, Faneuil Hall, the Old State House, the Charlestown Navy Yard, the Old South Meeting House, and the Paul Revere House.

Lowell National Historic Park:

Commemorating the American Industrial Revolution the Lowell National Historic Park consists of the Boott Cotton Mills Museum, famous boardinghouses, the Suffolk Mill Turbine Exhibit, and five miles of canals.

Minute Man National Historical Park:

Including the North Bridge, the Minute Man Statue, Colonial houses, Battle Road, the Wayside Home, and the "Shot Heard Around The World" that still rings signaling the April 19, 1775 beginning of the American Revolutionary War, the Minute Man National Historical Park is found between Lexington and Concord.

New Bedford Whaling National Park:

The one-time world's most preeminent whaling port contains the New Bedford Whaling Museum, the Seamen's Bethel, the US Customs House, the Rotch-Jones-Duff House and Garden Museum, the Ernestina Schooner, and the Park's movie "The City That Lit The World".

Boston African-American National Historic Site:

Located in Beacon Hill the Boston African-American National Historic Site contains fifteen pre-Civil War structures of the 19th Century African-American Boston community, and the African Meeting House, the oldest African-American church in the Country.

Frederick Law Olmsted National Historic Site:

With a variety of his famous landscapes, the Olmsted House, the Olmsted Archives, walking tours of the Back Bay Fens, Jamaica Pond, the Arnold Arboretum, Riverway, and the "Emerald Necklace" park system, the Frederick Law Olmsted National Historic Site can be found in Brookline.

John F. Kennedy National Historic Site:

Located in Berkline the John F. Kennedy National Historic Site contains his 1917 birthplace and boyhood home, as well as the first home of his parents Joseph P. and Rose Fitzgerald Kennedy.

Longfellow National Historic Site:

Found in Cambridge the Longfellow National Historic Site includes his 1837 to 1882 residence and the headquarters where George Washington planned the Siege of Boston.

Salem Maritime National Historic Site:

The first National Park System Historic Site created includes wharves from the 18th and 19th Centuries, the Customs House, the West India Goods Store, the Narbonne-Hale House, and the 18th Century E.H. Derby House.

Saugus Iron Works National Historic Site:

The Saugus Iron Works National Historic Site contains a reconstructed blast furnace, a rolling and slitting mill, a forge, and a 17th Century house.

Springfield Armory National Historic Site:

The Springfield Armory National Historic Site houses one of the most extensive collections of firearms in the world.

Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor:

The Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor contains thousands of the natural and historic treasures found in the States of Massachusetts and Rhode Island.

Boston Harbor Islands National Recreation Area:

Possessing the only drumkin field intersecting a coast of the United States, the Boston Harbor Islands National Recreation Area includes islands full of semi-wilderness locations, the famous George's Island, and Fort Warren, an historic Civil War site.

Essex National Heritage Area:

Stretching more than five hundred miles from eastern Massachusetts to New Hampshire, and containing hundreds of historical sites from the Atlantic Ocean to the Merrimac River, the Essex National Heritage Area includes wooden boat-building shops, early industrial mill complexes, art and cultural museums, historic seaports, antique farms, and significant wildlife refuges.

Appalachian National Scenic Trail:

A portion of the more than 2100-mile long Appalachian National Scenic Trail that runs from Springer Mountain Georgia, through fourteen States, six National Parks, eight National Forests, and sixty State Parks and Forests, to Mount Katahdin Maine, can be found in Massachusetts.

Cape Cod National Seashore:

The Cape Cod National Seashore, from Provincetown to Chatham, is full of sand dunes, beaches, lighthouses, freshwater ponds, lifesaving stations, Cape Cod houses, and the Marconi Wireless Station Site.

State Parks:

Massachusetts contains about 143 State Parks including the Alewife Brook Reservation at the end of the Arlington Minuteman Bikeway, the Bash Bish Falls State Park in Mount Washington containing Massachusetts highest single-drop waterfall, the Belle Isle Marsh Reservation that preserves the last salt marsh in Boston, the Blackstone River and Canal Heritage State Park where the Industrial Revolution was born in America, the Blue Hills Reservation, the largest conservation land in a major metropolitan area, and the place Massachusetts was named for, the Boston Harbor Islands National Recreation Area with the Boston Lighthouse, Fort Warren, Georges Island, and Spectacle Island, the Callahan State Park, a popular dog park, the Charles River Reservation, Dam, Basin, Esplanade, and John F. Kennedy Memorial Park, the Connecticut River Greenway State Park in the Pioneer Valley, the Demarest Lloyd State Park and beach on Buzzards Bay, the Elm Bank Horticultural Center in Wellesley containing the Display Gardens and Tree Nurseries, the New England Trial Garden, the Italianate Garden, and the Weezie's Garden For Children, the Fall River Heritage State Park, located next to the World War Two USS Massachusetts Battleship, Battleship Cove, and many popular festivals including Fall River Celebrates America, the Holyoke Heritage State Park containing the Volleyball Hall of Fame, the Mount Everett State Reservation with scenic views of Massachusetts, Connecticut, and New York, the Mount Greylock State Park with the highest elevation point in Massachusetts, the Mount Tom State Reservation with Raptor migration observations, the Natural Bridge State Park in North Adams possessing the only natural white marble bridge in the Country, the Pilgrim Memorial State Park and National Monument to the Forefathers, the Quincy Quarries Reservation and site of the first railroad in the United States, the Revere Beach State Park, known as the Coney Island of New England, the Salisbury Beach State Reservation and home of many harbor seals, the Scusset Beach State Recreation Area on the Cap Code Canal's northern side, the South Cape Beach State Park and Waquoit Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve in Mashpee, the Mount Wachusett State Park and Ski Resort in Princeton, the Walton Park State Park and famous kettle hole, the Wampatuck State Park in Hingham on the former Hingham Naval Ammunition Depot Annex, and many more.

State Forests:

Massachusetts contains more than three million acres of wildlife, watershed, and State Forests including the Beartown State Forest in Monterey with seven and a half miles of the Appalachian National Scenic Trail running through it, the Brimfield State Forest and Dean Pond Recreation Area, the Catamount State Forest in Colrain where the Park's 1812 schoolhouse was the first to fly the United States flag, the Douglas State Forest on the Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island State Line, the Erving State Forest in Warwick with the Metacomet-Monadnock Trail, the F. Gilbert Hills State Forest in Foxborough with unique native Algonquin Indian stone structures, the Freetown-Fall River State Forest with the famous granite rock outcropping of an Indian face and a Wampanoag reservation, the Granville State Forest in the southern Berkshires along the Massachusetts and Connecticut border, the Kenneth Dubuque Memorial State Forest in Monroe, in the northern Berkshires, the Leominster State Forest with land parcels given to the families of soldiers killed in the 1754 to 1763 French and Indian Wars, the Lowell-Dracut-Tyngsboro State Forest, a popular bird watching sanctuary, the Monroe State Forest with deep valleys, steep mountains, and scenic views of the popular Green Mountains of Vermont, the Mohawk Trail State Forest in Charlemont, well known for its trees, many as much as five hundred years old, the Manuel F. Correllus State Forest on Martha's Vineyard, the Mount Grace State Forest in Warwick on the third highest elevation point in the State, the Mount Washington State Forest in the Taconic Mountains, featuring the Bash Bish Falls State Park, the Myles Standish State Forest in Plymouth with the Massasoit National Widlife Refuge and endangered Plymouth Red-Bellied Turtles, the Otter River State Forest in Baldwinsville with yurt camping availabilities, the Sandisfield State Forest, a popular day-use forest, the Savory Mountain State Forest, a remote area in the Hoosac Mountains, the Shawme-Crowell State Forest in Barnstable County with the Scusset Beach State Reservation on Cape Cod Bay, the South River State Forest in Conway with the Mohican-Mohawk Trail, the Spencer State Forest with the Elias Howe Estate, the inventor of the sewing machine, and the Midstate Trail, the Tolland State Forest and Reservoir in Otis in the southern Berkshires, the Wendell State Forest on the Quabbin Reservoir along the Metacomet-Monadnock Trail, the Willard Branch State Forest in Ashley with tumbling brooks at the Pearl Hill State Park, and more.

Lakes and Ponds:

The list of lakes and ponds found in the State of Massachusetts includes Lake Ashmere near Pittsfield, Lake Attitash, and Indian Head Park Beach, in Merrimac, Lake Boon with four basins in Stowe and Hudson, Brooks Pond that forms the headwaters of the Five Mile River near North Brookfield, Lake Lashaway, near East Brookfield, that is brown in color and warm in the summertime, Lake Buel, in Great Barrington, with more than one hundred Summer homes, Lake Chaubunagungamaug, in Webster, with a Native American Indian name meaning "fishing place at the boundaries, " Lake Cochichewick in North Andover, Lake Cochituate, in Natick, on the peninsula that houses the United States Army Soldier System Center, Pegan Cove Park, and the Cochituate State Park, Follins Pond, a brackish lake on Cape Cod, Great Herring Pond in Plymouth, Haughton's Pond, in Milton, a spring-fed, glacially-formed kettle hole, Mashpee Pond and Wakely Pond, adjoining bodies of water in Sandwich, Cape Cod's largest fresh water pond when combined together, Lake Massapoag, in Sharon, the home of a major 19th Century ice company and a minor Summer resort area, Lake Onota, in Pittsfield, with large 20th Century-built mansions, Pranker's Pond in Saugus, Lake Quannapowitt, in Wakefield, the site of many 5K to Ultra Marathon races, Lake Quinsigamond, in Worcester, with eight privately owned islands, Lake Rico, in the Massasoit State Park at Taunton, containing many coves, islands, and forests, Lake Sabbatia, in the Taunton Area of Critical Environmental Concern known as the Canoe River Aquifer, Sargent's Pond, in Brookline, on the National Register of Historic Places, Tuxbury Pond at Amesbury on the Massachusetts and New Hampshire State Line, a large Summer Camp resort, Watson Pond, in Taunton, popular for ice fishing, Winnecunnet Pond, in Norton, that has a famous, and serious, weed problem, North and South Watuppa Ponds, in Fall River and Westport, connected by a narrow channel they are the second and third largest naturally-occurring bodies of water in the State, Wenham Lake, in Beverly, a Colonial Period important alewife fishing location, Lake Wyola and dam, in Shutesbury, that has supported several mills from the 1880s on, Lewis Lake in Winthrop, and the Quabbin Reservoir, the largest lake in Massachusetts, that supports Boston and forty other communities.

Rivers:

All the rivers in the State of Massachusetts flow into the Atlantic Ocean including the Cole River, the Runnins River, the Palmer River, the Kickamuit River, the Blackstone River, the Abbott River, the Chockalog River, the Peters River, the Quinsigamond River, the West River, the Ten Mile River, the Bungay River, the Wilde River, the Sevenmile River, the French River, the Quinebaug River, the Connecticut River, the Quaboag River, the East Brookfield River, the Five Mile River, the Cranberry River, the Swift River, the Ware River, the Burnshirt River, the Prince River, the Deerfield River, the Bear River, the Chickley River, the Cold River, the Green River, the North River, the South River, the Fall River, the Farmington River, the Hubbard River, the Manhan River, the Tully River, the Sawmill River, the Scantic River, the Westfield River, the Housatonic River, the Blackberry River, the Whiting River, the Mad River, the Kankapot River, the Umpachene River, the Williams River, the Ipswich River, the Skug River, the Miles River, the Essex River, the Hoosic River, the Wymouth Back River, the Green Harbor River, the Duck Hill River, the Great Wood Island River, the Bluefish River, the Jones River, the Little Wood Island River, the Mitchell River, the Oyster Pond River, the Red River, the Swan Pond River, the Bass River, the Centerville River, the Bumps River, the Seapit River, the Marstons Mill River, the Tiasquam River, the Wild Harbor River, the Pocasset River, the Wareham River, the Agawam River, the Broadmarsh River, the Crooked River, the Wankinco River, the Sippican River, the Weweantic River, the Naskatucket River, the Mattapoisett River, the Acushnet River, the Keene River, the Paskamanset River, the Westport River, the Shingle Island River, the Capicut River, the Taunton River, the Assonet River, the Cedar Swamp River, the Canoe River, the Forge River, the Matfield River, the Cotley River, the Salisbury Plain River, the Satucket River, the Shumatuscacant River, the Wading River, the Rumford River, the Town River, the Hockomock River, the Winnetuxet River, the Lees River, the Snake River, the Quequechan River, the Three Mile River, the Segreganset River, the Nissitissit River, the Whitman River, the Stillwater River, the Quinapoxet River, the Still River, the Squannacook River, the Powwow River, the Shawsheen River, the Parker River, the Rowley River, the Roger Island River, the Egypt River, the Eagle Hill River, the Blackwater River, the Little River, the Merrimack River, the Artichoke River, the Cochichewick River, the Concord River, the Sudbury River, the Assobet River, the Indian River, the East Meadow River, and the Nashua River.

Bays:

Massachusetts contains several bays including Assonet Bay in Freetown, Buzzards Bay, a popular boating, fishing, and tourism place surrounded by Cape Cod, the Elizabeth Islands, and Rhode Island Sound, Cape Cod Bay in the southernmost part of the Gulf of Maine, and along with Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts Bay, and Narragansett Bay give the State its "Bay State" name, Dorchester Bay, the smallest of the three Boston Harbor bays, and the home of Thompson Island, with the John F. Kennedy Library and Museum on the Columbia Point peninsula's western shore, Duxbury Bay that provided its name to the United States Navy Seaplane Tender USS Duxbury Bay, Massachusetts Bay that extends 65 miles into the Atlantic Ocean, is enclosed by Cape Ann and Cape Cod, includes the Boston Harbor, and the Outer Boston Harbor, and is part of the Gulf of Maine, the Narragansett Bay on the Rhode Island Sound's northern side, that forms the largest New England estuary, creates a small archipelago, and contains more than thirty islands, Plymouth Bay on Cape Cod's western shore with historical significance because of the 1620 Pilgrims Mayflower landing at Plymouth Rock, Popponessett Bay on Cape Cod's southern shore in Mashpee and Barnstable, Quincy Bay, the largest Boston Harbor bay, containing Hangman Island, Moon Island, and Long Island, and Waquoit Bay, a small Cape Cod landlocked bay connected to Nantucket Sound.

Sounds:

The State of Massachusetts contains Vineyard Sound separating Cape Cod and the Elizabeth Islands from Martha's Vineyard, a very popular tourist location, Nantucket Sound, a triangularly-shaped offshore Atlantic Ocean area containing many protected species of fish, enclosed by Nantucket, Cape Cod, Martha's Vineyard, and Vineyard Sound, Broad Sound in the Gulf of Maine, Rhode Island Sound, and Salem Sound, with a heavily populated shoreline, and several beaches and parks, that offers camping on Winter Island.

Beaches:

All the beaches in Massachusetts are found in Cape Cod, and the islands area, of the eastern part of the State along 1519 miles of coastline in Barnstable, Wintrop, Winchester, Beverly, Boston, Waterport, Wellfleet, Bourne, Braintree, Truro, Taunton, Brewster, Carver, Swampscott, Scituate, Chatham, Chilmark, Saugus, Sandwich, Cohasset, Concord, Sailbury, Rockport, Danvers, Dartmouth, Revere, Quincy, Dennis, Duxbury, Provincetown, Plymouth, Eastham, Edgartown, Orleans, North Andover, Essex, Fairhaven, Natick, Nantucket, Falmouth, Freetown, Nahant, Milton, Gloucester, Hull, Mashpee, Ipswich, Lynn, and Manchester-by-the-Sea.

Islands:

From barren and completely submerged in the Massachusetts Bay, to large and famous like Nantucket and Martha's Vineyard, some islands of the State originally existed as western Worcester County and eastern Hampshire County hills, until the Swift River was dammed, and the Quabbin Reservoir was built to support the Boston water needs.

Many Massachusetts islands can be found in the Boston Harbor Islands National Recreation Area, the Connecticut River, and scattered around the State in man-made ponds, lakes, and wetlands.

Most Massachusetts islands are uninhabited and Apple Island and Govenors Island lay underneath the Logan International Airport's runways.

Including Amrita Island in Bourne, Bartletts Island in Marshfield, the approximately thirty-six Boston Harbor National Recreation Area islands, Childrens Island in Salem, Chappaquiddick Island in Edgartown, Choate Island in Essex, Clarke's Island in Plymouth Bay, Cobble Island in Webster, Conspiracy Island in Berkley, Cuttyhunk Island, the outermost of the Elizabeth Islands, and the site of the first English settlement in New England, Penihese Island in Gosnell, Veckatimest Island in Woods Hole, Nashawena Island, Pasque Island, and Weepecket Island in Dukes County, Hales Island in Havehill, Long Island and Spinnaker Island in Boston Harbor, Martha's Vineyard, Nantucket Island, Naushon Island, and Onset Island in the Cape Cod area, Tuckernuck Island in Nantucket, Plum Island north of Cape Ann, Popponesset Island in Mashpee, Tinker Island in Marblehead, Washburn Island in East Falmouth, Winter Island near Salem Sound, and Wickets Island In Wareham, some of the State's islands are at least partially inhabited.

Mountains:

Massachusetts contains four distinct mountain ranges known as the Metacomet Ridge and Taconic Mountain Range of the Appalachians, the Berkshire Mountain Range in the western part of the State, an extremely popular tourist area offering several State Parks, Kent Falls, large wildernesses, the Berkshire Botanical Gardens, Bash Bish Falls, the Hebert Arboretum, and many museums, and the Hoosac Mountin Range.

Recognized as the State's first forest preservation public land, Mount Greylock, with its peak in Adams in the northwest corner of the State, is the highest elevation point in Massachusetts at 3491 feet tall, contains the only boreal forest in the State, and features the 93-foot tall Massachusetts Veterans War Memorial Tower, hiking trails, and a part of the Appalachian National Scenic Trail.

Massachusetts other tallest mountains include Saddle Ball Mountain in New Ashford, Mount Fitch in Berkshire County, Mount Everett, the highest peak in the South Taconic Mountain Range, Bakke Mountain in Florida, one of the main locations of the Hoosac Wind Project, Mount Frissell on the Massachusetts and Connecticut border, with its southern slope the highest elevation point in the "Land of Steady Habits, " Mount Race with well known waterfalls and a ridgeline cliff face, Mount Wachusett in Princeton, the highest point in the State east of the Connecticut River, Pocumtuck Mountain west of the abandoned settlement of Catamount, the Beartown Mountain and State Forest in Monterey, East Mountain, a traprock ridge in the Connecticut River Valley, Mount Watatic, a monadnock on the Massachusetts and New Hampshire State Line, Monument Mountain, a quartzite ridgeline in Great Barrington with several distinct peaks, Massaemett Mountain in Shelbourne containing the High Ledges Wildlife Sanctuary, Mount Jefferson, a ridgeline hill in Worcester County, Mount Tom, a ruggedly steep traprock on the Connecticut River's west bank near Holyoke, and the highest peak of the Metacomet Ridge, Tekoa Mountain, in Montgomery, overlooking the Westfill River Gorge of the Berkshire Plateau, and Great Blue Hill, in the Blue Hills Reservation. Massachusetts was named after this mountain.

Lighthouses:

Massachusetts contains about sixty-two lighthouses along it's eastern shore, and all of them are located in the Gulf of Maine, in Nantucket Sound, in Vineyard Sound, in Rhode Island Sound, in Buzzards Bay, in Massachusetts Bay, in Salem Sound, in Broad Sound, on Cape Cod, on Cape Ann, on Martha's Vineyard Island, in the Annisquam River, or in the Merrimac River, including the Bird Island Lighthouse, one of the oldest original structures found in the State, the 1716 Boston Light, the oldest lighthouse in America, and the 1797 Highland Lighthouse, Cape Cod's first lighthouse.

(For more information on Cape Cod lighthouses see "Famous Lighthouses of the Cape Cod National Seashore" by this Author, on associatedcontent.com, at aclnk.com/ar2766276).

Attractions:

Popular Attractions found in the State of Massachusetts include those in Boston, like Fenway Park, affectionately known as the "Green Monster, " the Boston Museum of Science, the Freedom Trail, "Old Ironsides, " the USS Constitution, the JFK Presidential Museum and Library, the Museum of Fine Arts, the New England Aquarium, whale watching, Boston Common, the New England Holocaust Memorial, the Massachusetts Archives and Commonwealth Museum, the Bunker Hill Monument, the Boston Children's Museum, the Boston Harbor Islands National Park, the Boston Old South Church, Faneuil Hall, the Museum of African-American History, the Boston Old North Church, the Charlestown Navy Yard, the Old State House, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts State House, Fort Warren, the John Hancock Tower, the Paul Revere House, the Dorchester Heights National Historic Site, the Minuteman Bikeway, the Emerald Necklace Conservancy, the Bejamin Franklin Statue, the Paul Revere Statue, the Harriet Tubman House, the Boston Massacre Site, Boston's Chinatown, Boston Harbor, Franklin Park, the Boston North End Cultural Heritage Guided Walking Tours, and the Boston Nature Center, however, many other popular tourists Attractions can be located scattered around the State as well, such as Chappaquaddick, Martha's Vineyard, the Felix Neck Wildlife Sanctuary, the Black Heritage Trail, the Harvard Museum of Natural History, the Longfellow National Historic Site, Harvard University, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, the Nantucket Whaling Museum, the Nantucket Life Saving Museum, the Nantucket Aquarium, the Salem Witch Memorial, the New England Pirate Museum, the Northfield Mountain Cross Country Ski Area, the Cape Cod Children's Museum, the Wampanoag Indian Museum, Six Flags New England, the Blue Hills Ski Area, the Porter Thermometer Museum, the Wachusett Meadow Wildlife Sanctuary, the House of the Seven Gables, the Salem Maritime National Historic Site, the Witch Dungeon Museum, the 40 Whacks Museum, the Pilgrim Monument and Museum, Cape Ann Whale Watching, the Cape Ann Historical Museum, the Plimouth Plantation, the Mayflower II, the Pilgrim Hall Museum, Plymouth Rock, the High Ledges Wildlife Sanctuary, the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame, the Doctor Seuss National Memorial Sculpture Garden, the Springfield Museums Quadrangle, the Springfield Armory National Historic Site, the Connecticut Valley History Museum, the Minute Man National Historic Park, the North Bridge across the Concord River, the Battle Road Trail, the Calvin Coolidge Presidential Library and Museum, the Boott Cotton Mills Museum, the New England Quilt Museum, the American Textile History Museum, the Cape Cod National Seashore, the Chatham Railroad Museum, the Monomoy National Wildlife Refuge, the Cape Cod Museum of Natural History, the Marconi Station, the Wellfleet Bay Wildlife Sanctuary, the JFK Hyannis Museum, Cap Cod Potato Chip Factory Tours, the Berkshire Scenic Railway Museum, the Johnny Appleseed Trail, the Clara Barton Birthplace Museum, the Blandford Ski Area, the Mount Greylock State Reservation, the Toad Hall Classic Sports Car Museum, the Brodie Mountain Ski Resort, the Blue Hills Trailside Museum, the George Peabody House Museum, the Jiminy Peak Ski Area, the Armenian Library and Museum of America, the World War One Memorial Park and Zoo, the Catamount Ski Area, the Vietnam Mountain Biking Trail, the Cape Cod Museum of Art, the New Bedford Whaling Museum, the Seamens Bethel, the Lizzie Borden House, the Coast Guard Heritage Museum, the USS Massachusetts, the Hancock Shaker Village, the Emily Dickinson Museum, the French Transatlantic Cable Station Museum, the Norman Rockwell Museum, the Lexington National Heritage Museum, the FDR American Heritage Center Museum, the United States Naval Shipbuilding Museum, the JFK National Historic Site Brookline, the Hall At Patriot Place, the Aquarium of the National Marine Fisheries, the Volleyball Hall of Fame, the Hallmark Museum of Contemporary Photography, the Nash's Dinosaur Track Quarry, and more.

Boston:

Unoffcially known as the "Capital of New England, " because of its cultural and economic importance to the region, Boston is one of the oldest cities in the United States.

The August 29, 1629 Cambridge Agreement, that guaranteed local control over the Colony, was directly attributable to Boston becoming a city.

Founded September 17, 1630 by Massachusetts Bay Colony Puritans who first named the city Trimountaine, the State's Capital is located on the Shawmut Peninsula, and was the site of many major Revolutionary War events including the December 16, 1773 Boston Tea Party, after officials in the city refused to return three shiploads of taxed tea back to England, and Colonists destroyed the tea by throwing it into Boston Harbor in retaliation against the Tea Act that violated their right to be taxed only by their elected officials, and the March 5, 1770 Boston Massacre, resulting from protests against the Townsend Acts that gave the British the right to tax Colonists, where British troops murdered five residents of the city.

The "Athens of America" saw several skirmishes during the Revolutionary War including the April 19, 1775 to March 17, 1776 Siege of Boston, in which New England militiamen surrounded the town preventing movement by the British Army located there. forcing them to leave, the June 17, 1775 Battle of Bunker Hill that proved to the Colonists they could sufficiently stand up in armed conflict against the British Army, the April 18/19, 1775 "one if by land, two if by sea" midnight ride of Paul Revere, and the April 19, 1775 Battles of Lexington and Concord featuring the "shot heard around the world" on the Old North Bridge that started the Revolutionary War.

By annexing nearby communities, and through land reclamation, Boston became a major seaport and manufacturing center and draws approximately sixteen million visitors a year.

A well known higher education and medical center Boston is famous for many firsts such as the 1635 Boston Latin School, America's first public school, the Country's first subway, and the Nation's first community health center.

Dating back to about 5000BC several Prehistoric Native American Indian sites have been discovered on the Shawmut Peninsula.

After the Fugitive Slave Laws of 1850 were enacted, and President Franklin Pierce attempted to make an example out of the city because of the 1854 Burns Fugitive Slave Case, Boston became a center for the Abolitionist Movement.

A technological, political, and intellectual center incorporated March 4, 1822, Boston has the second largest skyline in the Northeastern part of the United States in terms of the most five hundred foot tall buildings, and was ranked Number 35 in Worldwide Quality of Living in a 2009 survey of 215 major cities.

Boston contains about 220 skyscrapers including the Prudential Tower, the Hancock Building, the Federal Reserve Bank Building, and the 1893 Ames Building, the city's first high rise.

Major industries that have been found in Boston include education, high technology, life sciences, biotechnology, health care, tourism, financial services, insurance, mutual funds, publishing, law and government, fishing, various industries, banking, and beans.

One of the largest cybercities in the United States major Corporations that have been located in Boston include the Fidelity Investments Life Insurance Company, the Bank of America, the Haughton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company, the Beacon Press, the Hynes Convention Center, the Seaport World Trade Center, the Liberty Mutual Insurance Company, the Gillette Company, the Procter and Gamble Company, and the Boston Consulting Group.

The Port of Boston is the oldest continuously operating fishing and industrial port in the Western Hemispehere.

Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone in Boston in 1876.

Boston has many historical nicknames such as the Olde Town, Bean Town, America's Walking City, a famously popular activity in Boston, the City of Nations, the Puritan City, the Cradle of Liberty, and the City On A Hill, in reference to the town's three hills and its original desire to become the Biblical "City on a Hill".

Boston has had many songs written about it including Please Come To Boston, and many popular television programs based there including James At 15, Spencer For Hire, The Suite Life of Zack and Cody, St. Elsewhere, The Law and Harry McGraw, Dawson's Creek, Boston Common, Ally McBeal, Cheers, and more.

Popular Boston area Attractions include the Cutler Majestic Theatre, the Boston Symphony Orchestra, the Boston Early Music Festival, the Boston Arts Festival, the Boston National Historical Park, the Freedom Trail, the Boston Children's Museum, the Boston Marathon, th Boston Film Festival, the Boston Harbor Islands National Recreation Area, the Bunker Hill Monument, Faneuil Hall, the Old North Church, the Franklin Park Zoo, the New England Aquarium, the John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum, the Museum of Fine Arts, the USS Constitution frigate, the Paul Revere House, the Rose Kennedy Greenway, Fenway Park, the Boston By Foot Guided Walking Tours, Beacon Hill, Back Bay, the Boston World War Two Guided Duck Boat Tours, Autumn foliage sightseeing tours, and many more.

Worcester:

Forty miles west of Boston, and known as the "Heart of the Commonwealth, " Worcester is the third largest city in New England.

Famous for its Mill Era Victorian architecture Worcester was originally known as Quinsigamond, "meaning the fishing place for pickerel, " by the Native American Indians who first settled the area.

In 1673 the first English settlement in Worcester was burned to the ground in the December 2, 1675 King Philip's War, rebuilt and incorporated in 1684, abandoned again in the 1702 Queen Anne's War, permanently settled in 1713 and reincorporated on April 2, 1731.

Because of being an ammunition depot Worcester was a hotbed of activities during the Revolutionary War, and on July 4, 1776 Newsman Isaiah Thomas, the Owner of the Massachusetts Spy newspaper, conducted the first public reading of the Declaration of Independence in front of Worcester City Hall.

Worcester is the home of the American Antiquarium Society National Repository that has held about two-thirds of the items printed in America from 1639 to 1820.

Known as the "Birthplace of the American Industrial Revolution" Worcester saw the barbed wire that fenced the American West, the monkey wrench, valentine cards, textile looms, and envelop folding machines invented in the town and surrounding Blackstone Valley.

Major industries that have been located in Worcester include commerce, education, fishing, barbed wire, tools, textiles, abrasives for manufacturing, railroads, triple decker apartment buildings, business, filmmaking, clothing, shoes, machine parts, diners, air-powered trucks, discount marketing, aeronautical equipment, emergency operations consoles, full-pressure suits for X-15 test pilots, Apollo spacesuits, steel rolling mills, office and computer furniture, biotechnology, health care, stem cell research, pharmaceuticals, insurance, oral contraceptive pills, and comic books.

Major Corporations that have been found in Worcester include the Washburn & Moen Manufacturing Company, the Royal Worcester Corset Factory, the Norton Company, Saint-Golain, the Wyman-Gordon Company, the Worcester Lunch Car Company, the American Wheellock Company, Advanced Cell Technology Incorporated, Abbott Laboratories, the Hanover Insurance Company, the Paul Revere Life Insurance Company, the Harleysville Worcester Insurance Company, the oldest Insurer in Massachusetts, and the Spags Hardware Company.

Popular Worcester area Attractions include the American Antiquarium Society National Repository, the Higgins Armory Museum, the Worcester Art Museum, the EcoTarium Science Museum, the Mechanics Concert Hall, the New England Metal and Hardcore Festival, the Palladium, the Worcester Center For Crafts, the Worcester Music Festival, the oldest in the United States, the New England Summer Nationals, the Worcester County Saint Patrick's Day Parade, and more.

Springfield:

Part of the Northeast Megalopolis from Washington D.C. to Boston, Springfield, the largest city in western Massachusetts and the Pioneer Valley, is noted as the birthplace of Doctor Seuss and where James Naismith invented the game of basketball.

Known as "The City of Firsts, " the first Springfield in the United States houses the largest Chinese cloisonne metalwork objects collection outside of Asia in the G.W. Vincent Smith Art Museum, and is the home of the Basketball Hall of Fame.

Springfield was the site George Washington selected for the National Armory, and the location of the 1787 Shays Rebellion, a key element in forming the Philadelphia Constitutional Convention leading the Country away from the Articles of Confederation. The Armory was also a key center for inventions during the Industrial Revolution, especially the Blanchard lathe that increased mass production.

Major industries that have been found in Springfield include agriculture, interchangeable parts, railroad passenger coaches, revolvers, gasoline pumps, automobiles, motorcycles, bicycles, railroads, aircraft engines, air conitioning, banking, insurance, toys and games, and Senior Sportster racing aircraft.

Known as "The City of Homes" because of its many Victorian mansions major Corporations that have been located in Springfield include the Wasson Manufacturing Company, the Springfield and New London Railroad, the Smith and Wesson Holding Corporation, the Gilbert and Barker Gasoline Pump Manufacturing Company, the Duryea Motor Wagons Company, Indian Motocycles, Rolls-Royce, the Baystate Medical Center, Breck Shampoo, the Massachusetts Mutual Life Insurance Company, Merriam-Webster Publishing, the Milton Bradley Company, and Granville Brothers Aircraft Incorporated.

Popular Springfield area Attractions include the Doctor Seuss National Memorial, the Springfield Museum Quadrangle, the Puritan Statue, the George Walter Vincent Smith Art Museum, the Connecticut Valley Historical Museum, the Springfield Science Museum, the Museum of Springfield History, the Michele and Donald D'Amour Museum of Fine Arts, Dinosaur Hall with a lifesize Tyrannosaurus Rex and other skeletal specimens, the Eastern States Exposition, the New England State Fair, the 1860s-built St. Michael's Cathedral, the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame, and the Pioneer Valley, known as the "Crossroads of New England".

Cambridge:

Originally known as "Newe Town, " and named after the famous English University, with a Puritan theology connection to the town's Massachusetts Bay Colony founders, the area for the Middlesex County Seat, of which there are two, was selected in 1631 for its location upriver from Boston Harbor.

Because several outer areas became independent cities over the years, including Cambridge Village, Lexington, Brighton, Menotomy, and Arlington, Cambridge once contained a much larger area than the present city possesses.

Becoming Cambridge in May 1638 the town grew into one of the major industrial and Intellectual cities of New England through agriculture, estate planning, investments, textiles, and various trades.

Known as the "City of Squares" Cambridge contains the popular neighborhood centers of Lechmere Square, the northern terminal of the town's subway, Porter Square with Lesley University, Inman Square with many restaurants, bars, and shopping boutiques, Central Square, an Upper Gentrification area, Kendall Square, regarded as the Technology Square, and Harvard Square, a large triangular-shaped commercial center in the middle of town and the primary site of Harvard University.

Major Corporations that have been located in Cambridge include Akamai Technologies, Analog Devices, the Lotus Software Development Corporation, the General Radio Electrical Test Equipment Corporation, IBM, Polaroid, VMware Software Incorporated, the ITA Travel Software Company, the Genzyme Biotechnology Company, Arthur D. Little Management Consulting International, the world's first and oldest consulting company, the Novartis International Pharmaceuticals Company, the Biogen Idec Incorporated Biotechnology Company, Google, Microsoft Research New England, Harmonix Music Systems, Time Warner Cable, Miramax Films, Harvard University, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Bicycling and walking are favorite pasttimes in Cambridge and the city has several paths designed for these uses.

Cambridge contains more than two hundred National Register of Historic Sites including the American Net and Twine Company Factory, the Charles River Basin Historic District, the Robert Frost House, the Henderson Carraige Repository, the E.E. Cummings House, the Fort Washington Park with the 1775 fort from the April 19, 1775 to March 17, 1776 Siege of Boston, the first phase of the Revolutionary War after the Battles of Lexington and Concord, many famous homes from the 1800s, historic districts, and more.

Popular Cambridge area Attractions include the Carpenter Center For The Visual Arts, the Longfellow National Historic Site, the Harvard Art Museum, the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, the Glass Flowers Collection of the Harvard Museum of Natural History, the MIT Museum, the Alewife Brook Reservation, the Cambridge Common Public Park, the 1759 Christ Church, the 400-year old First Parish in Cambridge that was instrumental in early Massachusetts government and in the creation of Harvard College, and more.

Lowell:

Featuring the mile long Pawtucket Falls, and located where the Concord and Merrimac Rivers meet, the Middlesex County Seat was incorporated as a planned 1823 manufacturing center for textiles in the one-time farming community of East Chelmsford, thirty miles northwest of Boston.

Famous for its many canals, and with such major Corporations as Data General Microcomputers, the Digital Equipment Corporation, Apollo Computers, and Wang Laboratories located there, Lowell was part of the Massachusetts Miracle economic growth period of the 1980s.

The largest United States Industrial Complex of the 1850s major industries that have been located in Lowell include textiles, factories, construction, parachutes, military equipment, agriculture, cotton, financial services, and high technology.

Lowell has thirty-nine National Register of Historic Places, many of which can be found in the Lowell National Historical Park.

Lowell has been featured in several books including Visions of Gerard and Doctor Sax by Jack Kerouac, Lyddie by Katherine Paterson, Two Redheads & A Dead Blonde by Lloyd L. Corricelli, and Call the Darkness Light by Nancy Zaroulis.

Motion picture films the city of Lowell has been portrayed in include The Fighter, The Invention of Lying, High On Crack Street, Monkey Dance, and School Ties.

Popular Lowell area Attractions include the Lowell Folk Festival, the largest free Folk Festival in the Country, the Lowell-Dracut-Tyngsboro State Forest, the Vandenberg Esplanade, the Bette Davis Birthplace, the Childrens Museum of Lowell, the American Textile History Museum, the New England Quilt Museum, the Boott Cotton Mills Museum, the National Streetcar Museum, the Whistler House Museum of Art, the Lowell Winterfest, the Human Dog Sled Competition, the Massachusetts Poetry Festival, and more.

Series:

The United States Series I am writing here on associatedcontent.com provides an indepth look at all fifty States that make up this GREAT Country of ours and their five largest cities.

The current list of Articles for the United States Series I have published to date includes:

So This Is Sweet Home Alabama Alaska - The Land of the Midnight Sun Arizona - The Valley of the Sun Arkansas - People of the South Wind California - The Golden Gate, Earthquakes and Grizzly Bears Colorado - The Rocky Mountains, Skiing, and High Technology Connecticut - The Land of Steady Habits Delaware - The Small Wonder Florida - The Snowbirds R Us State Georgia - Goobers, Peaches, and Buzzards Hawaii - Luaus, Pineapples, and Beaches Idaho - The Gem of the Mountains and Potatoes State Illinois - Mining, Factories, and Labor Unions Indiana - Land of Steel and Ducks Iowa - The Ethanol and Food Capital of the World Bleeding Kansas America's Flattest State Kentucky - The Land of Tomorrow Louisiana - The Child of the Mississippi Maine - Lobsters, Lighthouses, and Black Bears Maryland - The "Oh Say Can You See" State Michigan - The Automotive State Minnesota - The Bread and Butter State Mississippi - Where Cotton Was King

Comments from readers are always welcome so let me know what you think about these Articles.

Sources:

This Article was compiled from several websites that provide much more information on Massachusetts including:

boston.com/travel/boston, worcestermass.org, springfieldmass.com, cambridge-usa.org, and mass.info

By Brett Matthew West - My Blogs: Editor-in-Chief of Nashville From A Bridge.wordpress.com, and Medicalscene.wordpress.com. The best advice this Yahoo Voices Featured Music, Travel, Health, Wellness, and Entertainment Wri...  

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